RAEE: le nuove regole

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RAEE
di Carmine Lorenzo

L'intera disciplina relativa ad "Aee" (Apparecchiature Elettriche ed Elettroniche) e "Raee" (Rifiuti di Apparecchiature Elettriche ed Elettroniche) è stata riformulata ad opera, rispettivamente, del Dlgs 4 marzo 2014, n. 27 e del Dlgs 14 marzo 2014, n. 49, abrogando il Dlgs 151/2005 ad eccezione delle norme da cui dipendono i diversi regolamenti attuativi necessari al funzionamento del sistema che ruota intorno ai rifiuti elettrici ed elettronici.

Sono in vigore dal 30 marzo 2014 le nuove regole sulle Aee fissate dal Dlgs 4 marzo 2014, n. 27 che ha recepito la Direttiva 2011/65/Ue sulla restrizione dell'uso di determinate sostante pericolose nelle apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche (Aee).

I fabbricanti garantiscono la conformità dei loro prodotti alle disposizioni del decreto. A tal fine redigono una dichiarazione Ue di conformità e appongono il marchio CE sul prodotto.

La Direttiva RAEE (2012/19/UE), invece, è stata recepita nel nostro ordinamento con la pubblicazione del D. Lgs. 49/2014, in vigore dal 12 aprile 2014.

Vengono modificati gli obiettivi di raccolta e di recupero, istituiti nuovi obblighi di marcatura dei prodotti, previste normative per la gestione sia dei RAEE domestici che professionali e per l’istituzione ovvero l’adesione ai sistemi collettivi, etc.

Il decreto-legge 'competitività', convertito nella legge 11 agosto 2014, n. 116 è poi da ultimo intervenuto a modificare il D.Lgs. 49/2014 relativamente alla disciplina dei sistemi collettivi di finanziamento.

In generale, il decreto conferma la responsabilità finanziaria del produttore di apparecchi elettronici ed elettrici per tutti gli obblighi della loro gestione a fine vita, conferma il ritiro dei Raee domestici "uno contro uno" e introduce il ritiro gratuito "uno contro zero" (senza obbligo di acquisto dell’equivalente) per i Raee di piccolissime dimensioni, a carico dei grandi rivenditori. 

Anche per i pannelli fotovoltaici scatta il ritiro gratuito "uno contro uno", l’obbligo del produttore di adesione a un consorzio, la "marcatura" del pannello e il "deposito preliminare" dei pannelli "domestici" restituiti dai consumatori. 

I produttori possono adempiere i propri obblighi di recupero o individualmente (organizzano un sistema di gestione individuale operante su tutto il territorio nazionale e riconoscimento al Ministero dell'Ambiente) o aderendo a un sistema collettivo organizzato come Consorzio.

Il produttore può applicare sul prezzo di vendita il contributo da imputare ai costi per raccolta, trattamento, recupero o smaltimento dei Raee, indicandolo separatamente nelle fatture di vendita ai distributori. I distributori possono rendere visibile il contributo nell'indicazione del prezzo finale.

I distributori stoccano i Raee raccolti presso i locali del proprio punto vendita e presso altri luoghi comunicati al Ministero dell'Ambiente all'atto dell'iscrizione all'Albo gestori ex articolo 3, Dm 65/2010. 

I distributori con superficie di vendita di Aee al dettaglio di almeno 400 metri quadrati, effettuano la raccolta gratuita dei Raee (cosiddetta ritiro "uno contro zero") di piccolissime dimensioni (non superiori a 25 cm) senza che il consumatore sia obbligato all'acquisto di Aee di tipo equivalente (cosiddetto ritiro "uno contro uno").

I distributori che vendono on line, per potere adempiere all'obbligo del ritiro gratuito indicano i luoghi di raggruppamento presso i quali il consumatore può conferire gratuitamente i Raee di tipo equivalente a quello acquistato, senza gravarlo di maggiori oneri, nonché le modalità di ritiro presso lo stesso luogo di consegna, gratuitamente. Queste indicazioni sono elemento essenziale del contratto di vendita a distanza e la mancanza ne comporta la nullità con diritto di chiedere indietro l'intera somma pagata. Il produttore che vende on line ma ha sede all'estero si iscrive al Registro dei soggetti obbligati a finanziare il sistema Raee, personalmente o tramite rappresentante autorizzato, il quale in questo caso sarà responsabile dell'organizzazione del ritiro dei Raee equivalenti.

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