Dl 133/2014: La nuova Governance degli Ato, parte II

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di Felice Lucia

 

*Parte I

 

La previsione di specifici strumenti di garanzia dell’equilibrio economico finanziario privi di adeguate valutazioni di efficienza porterebbe, da una parte, al trasferimento sugli utenti di costi anche non efficienti, con l’effetto di incrementare le tariffe; dall’altra, all’eliminazione di ogni rischio di impresa per il gestore del SII, fino a determinare la necessaria riqualificazione delle concessioni di gestione in contratti di appalto con rischio di violazione di norme europee e nazionali, con particolare riferimento ai cogenti obblighi di apertura al mercato che caratterizzano la disciplina degli appalti. 

Come noto, infatti, la giurisprudenza comunitaria ha da tempo precisato che il principale tratto distintivo del contratto di concessione - che vale a distinguerlo dal contratto di appalto - è proprio l'assunzione del rischio legato alla gestione del servizio, nel senso che il concessionario assume (e deve assumere) almeno in parte il rischio economico della gestione, perché il guadagno che egli percepisce non è legato al versamento di un prezzo o di un corrispettivo da parte della pubblica amministrazione contrattualmente stabilito e garantito (come nel contratto di appalto), bensì direttamente alla gestione del servizio, risultando i suoi ricavi esposti nel quantum ad un certo margine di aleatorietà. L’Autorità, dunque, propone di valutare la modifica di detta disposizione, riconducendo l’equilibrio economico-finanziario alla responsabilità, posta in capo ai gestori ed estranea alla regolazione, di esercire i servizi secondo criteri di efficienza. 

In terzo luogo, le modifiche apportare dal DL in esame all’art. 151 del d.lgs. n. 152/06 stabiliscono, recependo un orientamento giurisprudenziale già formatosi in relazione ai poteri dell’Autorità, che “le convenzioni esistenti devono essere integrate (..) secondo le modalità stabilite dall'Autorità per l'energia elettrica, il gas ed il sistema idrico.” Al fine di evitare nuovi contenziosi, appare opportuno precisare che la citata previsione si ricollega al potere, oggi intestato all’Autorità e già esercitato in relazione al primo periodo regolatorio 2012 - 2015, di incidere sulle convenzioni in corso. L’Autorità propone quindi di inserire esplicitamente il riferimento puntuale alle norme che già attribuiscono all’Autorità il potere di incidere sulle convenzioni in corso (art. 2, comma 12, lett. h) e comma 37 della legge 481 del 1995 e art. 10, comma 14, lett. d) ed f) del d.l. n. 70 del 2011), a valere ex nunc.

Riguardo le integrazioni apportate dal comma 1, lett. g), all’art. 156 del d.lgs. n. 152/06, con le quali è attribuito a questa Autorità il compito di stabilire i criteri di ripartizione della tariffa del SII, a seguito della sua riscossione, tra i diversi gestori interessati (gestore del servizio di acquedotto, fognatura e depurazione), si rileva la gravosità del compito assegnato, per cui si renderebbe necessario un contestuale incremento della dotazione organica. 

L’art. 7, comma 1, lett. i), del DL reca inoltre numerose disposizioni relative alle gestioni esistenti, sostituendo interamente i commi da 1 a 5 dell’art. 172 del d.lgs. n.152/06. 

In tale contesto, il decreto prevede opportunamente l’obbligo - per gli enti d’ambito che non hanno ancora provveduto - di adottare, entro il 13 settembre 2015, il Piano d’Ambito, di scegliere la forma di gestione e di avviare la procedura di affidamento, disponendo l’affidamento del servizio al gestore unico con conseguente decadenza degli affidamenti attualmente esistenti. La norma, inoltre, prevede, al fine di implementare il principio di unicità della gestione all'interno dell'ATO, che il gestore del SII subentri, alla data di entrata in vigore di tale provvedimento, agli ulteriori soggetti operanti all'interno del medesimo ATO. 

A completamento di tali disposizioni viene, tuttavia, introdotta una deroga, riferita ai casi in cui i gestori attualmente presenti, diversi dall’affidatario di ambito, eserciscono il servizio “in base ad un affidamento assentito in conformità alla normativa pro tempore vigente e non dichiarato cessato ex lege”; in relazione a tali casi, la disposizione in esame prevede che “il gestore del servizio idrico integrato subentra” non già alla data di entrata in vigore D.L., bensì “alla data di scadenza prevista nel contratto di servizio o negli altri atti che regolano il rapporto”. Si tratta, in sostanza, di una clausola di salvaguardia delle gestioni in essere. Tale deroga potrebbe vanificare in parte i positivi effetti del nuovo art. 172, atteso che la quasi totalità delle gestioni diverse dalle società affidatarie d’ambito oggi presenti eroga il servizio “in base ad un affidamento assentito in conformità alla normativa pro tempore vigente e non dichiarato cessato ex lege”. La deroga finirebbe quindi per intercettare la gran parte delle gestioni verso cui la norma principale - che disciplina il subentro del gestore affidatario per l’ambito al fine di assicurare l’unicità della gestione - è rivolta. 

Appare dunque opportuno valutare una modifica della norma. Si chiede pertanto, esplicitando che resta fermo altresì il rispetto della durata della concessione già definita a favore del soggetto subentrante, di considerare la soppressione della deroga o la formulazione di una deroga maggiormente restrittiva. In tal caso sarebbe opportuna una revisione del comma successivo (comma 3 del nuovo art. 172), in quanto la previsione di una soglia del 25% della popolazione ricadente nell’ambito, quale condizione per il concreto avvio dell’affidamento al gestore unico di ambito, richiederebbe ulteriori approfondimenti in ordine alla congruità della soglia stessa e alle tempistiche sottese alle procedure di accorpamento prospettate. 

Il comma 4 del citato art. 172, come modificato dall’art. 7, introduce opportunamente alcuni meccanismi finalizzati a superare l’eventuale inerzia da parte degli enti chiamati a procedere all’affidamento in base alla nuova disciplina legislativa, intestando in particolare specifici poteri sostitutivi ai Presidenti delle Regioni o, in caso di inerzia anche di questi ultimi, al Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri, tramite la nomina di appositi commissari ad acta, precisando infine che la violazione della citata disposizione comporta responsabilità erariale. 

La suddetta norma - la cui finalità generale appare condivisibile - attribuisce, tuttavia, all’Autorità un dovere di segnalazione al Governo circa gli eventuali casi di inerzia dei Presidenti delle Regioni, preordinato all’esercizio di cogenti poteri sostitutivi governativi. Detta funzione di segnalazione al Governo appare non del tutto coerente con la natura dell’Autorità quale amministrazione indipendente e neutrale. Non sembra, pertanto,opportuno attribuire all’Autorità un ruolo funzionale rispetto al Governo nell’esercizio delle funzioni sostitutive rispetto alle autonomie regionali, espressioni tipiche del potere esecutivo (Cfr. ex multis Consiglio di Stato, parere n. 872/2011). 

Da ultimo, la disposizione prevede - peraltro legificando una norma di rango secondario introdotta dalla regolazione a partire dalla deliberazione 585/2012/R/idr per gli anni 2012 e 2013, poi confermata dalla deliberazione 643/2013/R/idr per gli anni 2014 e 2015 - che, nei casi di inerzia sopra menzionati, “i costi di funzionamento dell’Ente di governo riconosciuti in tariffa sono posti pari a zero per tutta la durata temporale dell’esercizio dei poteri sostitutivi”. Al riguardo, si propone di introdurre - in luogo dell’attuale previsione di azzeramento dei costi di funzionamento - un principio generale di responsabilità dell’Ente di governo d’ambito in caso di inerzia, la cui puntuale attuazione potrebbe poi essere rimessa all’Autorità.

fonte: Autorità per l'Energia Elettrica, il gas ed il sistema idrico, "MEMORIA 25 SETTEMBRE 2014 467/2014/I"

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