Categorie illuminotecniche nella progettazione

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Illuminazione stradale
di Dario Rossi

Per  l’individuazione  delle  classi  di  illuminazione  per  tutte  le aree  pubbliche  adibite  alla circolazione,  destinate  al  traffico motorizzato,  ciclabile  o  pedonale,  e  quindi  la  scelta  dei requisiti illuminotecnici da far rispettare, il progettista ricorre alla norma UNI 112484.

Questa  norma  individua  in  particolare  le  prestazioni illuminotecniche  degli  impianti  di illuminazione  atte  a contribuire,  per  quanto  di  pertinenza,  alla  sicurezza  degli utenti  delle strade. Fornisce le linee guida per determinare le condizioni di illuminazione in una data zona della  strada, identificate  e  definite  in  modo  esaustivo,  nella  UNI EN 13201-2, mediante l’indicazione  di una categoria  illuminotecnica. Definisce anche per tutte  le  tipologie  specifici parametri di riferimento e di analisi.

La UNI-11248 introduce tre differenti livelli di categorie illuminotecniche:  

1. la categoria di riferimento, definita in base alla classificazione delle strade secondo il Codice della Strada;

2. la categoria di progetto, ottenuta da quella di riferimento valutando dei parametri di influenza,  che  si  ritengono  costanti durante  la  vita  dell’impianto  o  per  i  quali  si considera la situazione peggiore;

3. una o più categorie  di  esercizio  con  requisiti  prestazionali pari o  inferiori a quelle  di progetto, ottenute  valutando parametri  di  influenza  variabili  (ad esempio  il  flusso  di traffico). La categoria di esercizio descrive la condizione di illuminazione prodotta da un  dato  impianto  in  uno  specifico istante  della  sua  vita  o  in  una  definita  e  prevista condizione operativa.

All’atto  pratico  il  processo  di  classificazione  parte  con l’individuazione  della  categoria illuminotecnica di riferimento, come conseguenza della classificazione della strada secondo la legislazione in vigore. La classificazione della strada deve essere comunicata al progettista dal committente o dal gestore della strada ovvero concordata tra le parti.

A  questa prima  classificazione  il  progettista applica quella che è definita come  “l’analisi  dei rischi”,  ovvero  una  valutazione  di tutta  quelle  caratteristiche  specifiche  dell’ambiente  che portano ad individuare la categoria illuminotecnica di progetto.  

Questa  analisi  consiste  nella  valutazione  dei  parametri  di influenza  al  fine  di  individuare  la categoria illuminotecnica che garantisce la massima efficacia del contributo degli impianti di illuminazione  alla  sicurezza degli  utenti  della  strada  in  condizioni  notturne, minimizzando  al contempo i consumi energetici, i costi di installazione e di gestione e l’impatto ambientale.

Al  termine  di  questa  analisi,  che  il  progettista  deve documentare,  si  ricavano  le  sotto categorie  illuminotecniche  di  esercizio - anche  più  di  una - legate  al  variare  dei  flussi  di traffico, rispetto alle quali eseguire la progettazione illuminotecnica vera e propria.

A completamento del progetto la normativa prevede che si prepari un piano di manutenzione e si indichino tutti quegli interventi da porre in opera per il mantenimento delle prestazioni dell’impianto.

Le  categorie  illuminotecniche  di  riferimento,  per  i  vari  tipi  di strade  classificate  secondo  la legislazione vigente, dalle quali partire nell’analisi sono riportate nella seguente Tabella.

Tabella - Classificazione delle strade e individuazione della categoria illuminotecnica di riferimento (da Norma UNI 11248:2007)

 
fonte: "LGIlluminazione". Il Documento è stato prodotto da RSE SpA grazie al finanziamento del Fondo di Ricerca per il Sistema Elettrico nell'ambito dell'Accordo di programma tra RSE SpA ed il Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico

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